Difference between government and private sector vaccines

Both government and private offer eight vaccines from the list of routine immunisation recommendations. How do you do start to answer the question? From the vaccinations offered and who (government and private, here) offers what.

The World Health Organization (WHO) compiles key information on routine immunisation recommendations. These recommendations are based on position papers, published in the health organisation’s Weekly Epidemiological Record. The recommendations are broken down into two types. The first is a list of 10 vaccines for all age groups and populations. The second are supplementary lists that are tailored for specific population characteristics, like risk for polio.

The vaccination schedule, published by Amayeza, an online and independent resource for medicine information, shows what the private sector and government offers. However, the schedule is based on the 2009 schedule for the Department of Health’s Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Using the Amayeza information for the private sector and looking at the 2010 (last known update) government immunisation programme, the following table summarises what’s on offer from both:

vaccine code vaccine for on govt schedule? on private schedule?
BCG tuberculosis yes yes
DTP diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus yes yes
HBV hep B yes yes
HiB haemophilus influenza type b (causes mennigitis, pneumonia) yes yes
HPV papillomavirus (cause cervical cancer, genital warts) no no
IPV Polio yes no
MMR Measles, rubella only offers measles yes
OPV Polio yes yes
PCV pneumococcal yes yes
RV rotavirus (causes severe diahorrea) yes yes

Further remarks

  • Government offers a vaccination for tetanus that is not on the health organisation’s schedules.
  • Private sector offers three vaccinations on the health organisation’s supplementary lists – Meningococcal (MCV), Varicella for chicken pox (VCV), and hepatitis A.
  • Since April 2009 (page 6), government has been offering the pentavalent vaccine, a “five-in-one” vaccine that protects children from diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). From comparing the schedules with and without this vaccine, it wasn’t possible to see any discernable difference.

‘We offer everything on WHO list’

Spokesman for Department of Health, Joe Maila, disagreed with the findings above and insisted,”the fact is that we actually provide 11 vaccines in this country.” When asked to see the source of this claim, no response was received. It also wasn’t possible to find a more recent version of the government immunisation schedule.

From Idea to [the start of a] Story

This is an introductory guide on how to produce the beginnings of a piece of data journalism. We’re going to walk through it together, as I outline the key things to consider before starting, how to structure your work, a basic process to follow, and then use a real case study to show how the process works with a real story.

Be at ease, there is hope

The glitz and glamour of data journalism (the animations, the striking maps, those great infographics) are all over the Internet. It’s easy to think then that it’s about the data and how cool you can make it look, sing, or dance. Our wise friends at Code4SARaymond and Adi, keep reminding us (and the salivating Internet-at-large) that the focus should be on data journalism, and not data journalism.

Data journalism is no different than the journalism we all know and consume every day. Where traditional journalism relies on human sources (insiders, experts, scholars, scientists), data journalism treats data sources (spreadsheets, websites, databases) with all the rigor and scrutiny journalists treat human sources.

The animations and snazzy work is a part of communicating the final product – the story – but they will never replace the actual story.

The grand start

A data journalism story can start from an important event or it can simply be a question. You could have seen a breaking headline and wondered, how much x did it take for y to happen? Or, you start thinking about, say, food in a supermarket and wonder, what percentage of dog food features on the average shopper’s bill? Both questions are equally valid and are great starts for considering a piece of data journalism.

What I’ve learned so far in my work is that there is little difference between doing the work of basic science and that of data journalism. You make an observation, you come up with a question (hypothesis for purists and fancy people), and then you go about, doing some work to answer that question. Your work will show either that your initial hypothesis was incorrect or yes, it was indeed correct.

So, as I mentioned earlier, it’s not about the fancy graphic or how much data you trawled through. It’s about, what was your question and did you answer it or not?

Don’t believe the hype.

Who’s your data and what does he do‘?

I live and work in South Africa, so I’ll be basing this guide on data on the workforce from the country’s statistics agency. (The results of the quarterly survey was released just recently and the official unemployment rate is at a grim 25%.) The agency cares (in my head) about my feelings and thus have released the data in a Excel spreadsheet format. I will write other posts about how to deal with sources of data, where the publishers don’t care as much about your feelings.

The dataset is here and there are enough sheets in there to warrant exploration. This exploration is important because an excited and hurried deep dive into the data, without knowing what it’s about, what it covers, and so on, may end up on looking at the wrong data that doesn’t answer your question, attempting to answer the wrong question or – the nightmare of every data journalist – hours wasted achieving little.

So, before we talk about the process, let’s look at the data and see what it tells us. We don’t usually work with all the data (unless our initial idea or question requires this). It’s better to first spending some time looking at all the data and then focus on a particular section that catches their attention.

Looking through the spreadsheet from the stats agency, the data looks at different characteristics of the workforce (by province, age, gender, and demographic group). Even if it’s this is your first time and you’re following along, throw a quick glance at each of the sheets. It’s part of developing that methodical work ethic that will become invaluable as you progress in this type of journalism.

As an important sidenote, you’ll need to have only a basic working knowledge of Excel. I won’t be wielding any sort of magic on the worksheets, so anyone can follow along. For the sake of brevity (and so you don’t drop into a catatonic stupor from me detailing every single step), I will leave you to figure out how to do the basic manipulations in Excel after I explain them.

Now the journey begins

We’ve talked about what it really means to produce a work of data journalism, how we start considering an idea that will lead towards a piece, and some introductory remarks about how to look at a dataset. Finally. The process, the good stuff. How does it work?

Step I: Take a bite out of the data

For this guide, I want to see the size of the workforce in all the provinces in South Africa and how it has fared between 2013 and the second quarter of 2015. That data is in the very first worksheet. (You’re welcome to look through all the others and see what other interesting insights you can mine from them.)

So we went from an original spreadsheet of more than 20 worksheets:

tut_source

… to just this one entitled Table 1: Population of working age (15-64 years):

tut_orig

Let’s copy ’n’ paste the bottom part of into a new sheet, since that’s the view of the data we want to work with. To move towards a clean dataset, I took out the heading and “thousands” rows, and the cell labelled “South Africa”. I also took out the totals row, so it doesn’t come up later to confuse us. (I will adjust all the values, to reflect millions, in a minute.) It now should look like this:

tut_s1_1

Now, let’s change all the cells to show values in millions. I created columns next to each original column and multiplied the value by 1000. It now will look like this:

tut_s1_2
I also removed all borders, decimal places, and made the thousand separator a comma; this will help us make our charts readable and accessible later. At this point, you’d (and I did, too, at some point) be ready to take this table and analyse it. Not quite yet. Although it is indeed cleaner, the data structure we need is not there. Why does this matter? Because the data needs to be organized in a way that we can aggregate or group them. The wise old sages of data journalism say, if your data is not summarized [or aggregated], it is not ready for analysis.

Step 2: Transform the data into an analysis/visualization-ready structure

What factors are we ultimately looking to expose from this data set? They are province, year and the total number of workers. But, before that, we’re going to create this new data structure with the following columns:

tut_s2_1
If you studied database design or are a working programmer, you would have failed your database design test or received the chiding of your life if you proposed this dataset design. And your lecturer (or boss) would have been right; it’s not a normalized (computer science speak for optimised) dataset. However, this is data analysis for a piece of data journalism, so you may scorn those rules! We need to have duplicate rows in order to aggregate the data later (remember?).

Step 3: Produce the final dataset

In the screenshot above, I put in the structure to be followed for all years. So, copy in the totals for 2013, 2014 and 2015. You will then have a dataset that should look this. You should have 91 rows and only Q1, Q2 for 2015.

We’re almost there! The last step is actually aggregating the data. So, take a deep breath and create a PivotTable in a new sheet. Your summarized data should look like this:

tut_s2_3

Clean up the table: put in thousands separator, remove decimal places, and take out that cell labelled “Row values”. It should now look like this:

tut_s2_4

Step 4: Produce the visualisation

Congratulations! You have a dataset that is ready to be visualised.

We’re going to use Infogr.am to produce a infographic. This guide won’t cover how to sign up and use Infogr.am, so (as with Excel) you’ll have to become acquainted with the tool. I do assure you that it’s straight-forward and intuitive; you’ll use it like a professional in no time! You shall see.

Create a new infographic, choose any template you like, and look at the blank work area. It will look like this:

tut_s3_1

Give the infographic a title like “Total workforce in provinces, 2013 – 2015” or something similar, as you see fit. Then, add a grouped bar chart from the popup wizard. You’ll see the chart show up on the work area. (Delete the existing chart that comes with the template, that is now below the one you just created.)
Double-click on the chart and you’ll see an interface appear, not too different from Excel. Delete all the data you see, copy the data in your Excel worksheet from the last step we created (the PivotTable), and paste it into the Infogr.am spreadsheet interface. It should look like this:

tut_s3_3

When you pasted the data in, the graphic should have automatically updated itself. It’s starting to look great!

Have a look at the infographic. Everything is in there, but it may not be immediately understandable. You have to scroll doarrowswn to the legend to see which colors denote which provinces. So, instead of having to re-format the data, click on the two-directional arrows icon in the top right-hand corner of the spreadsheet interface. This nifty feature will switch together the rows and the columns, so that the provinces are now the rows and the years are now the columns.

tut_s3_4

Always aim to show the values on the chart (where appropriate, obvs), so click the “Show values” switch and the totals will reflect on the chart. Also, click on the Settings button and scroll down to add “total (in millions)” in the X-axis textbox. This will help the reader (and you) understand further the chart.

If you click the “Publish” button, you can give your graphic a title and then choose whether you want it to be an interactive or image. This is how the final image would look like:

final

And you have produced your first visualisation. Pat yourself on the back, have a coffee or beer, and get ready because you’ve just started the process. 🙂

Before we look at the rest of the work needed, let’s review what we’ve done:

  1. We looked at a data source and extracted a view of the data that we want to look at. In this case, we asked the question, what was the size of the workforce in all of South Africa’s provinces between 2013 and 2015?
  2. We followed a basic process of cleaning, formatting, transforming, and summarizing the data until we produced a table showing the data we need to answer our question.
  3. We then inserted the data into our visualisation tool and produced an infographic, shown above.

At this point, you’re so excited that you jump on Twitter or email, and send out your work to everyone you know. Hold on! Not yet.

What do your findings really mean?

Yes, you analysed the data and you answered your question. Gauteng province has had the largest workforce within the time period we chose, but it’s been decreasing in size since 2013. The Northern Cape has been consistently below 5 million since the same year. Why is this?

That’s why the second part of the title for this guide has the disclaimer: “start of a story”, because now starts the work of journalism that you know or were trained to do. At this point, you would:

  • contact analysts, experts, academics to interpret and comment on the data
  • depending on the scope of the story or your editor’s instructions, you’d look at other data sets or speak to experts to explain the context behind the findings
  • even analyse/visualise other datasets to test and refine your findings
  • and, do anything else required to make sure the piece is balanced and fair.

Once you’ve done any or all of these steps, you write the final article, include the infographic we produced above, and submit it for publication. If you run your own blog or website, you would just publish it live.

There’s no place like the end!

And the end, it is. I hope that you’ve come this far and your appetite has been whet to do further (and more sophisticated) work in data journalism.

If anything hasn’t worked for you or you’d like some help with a certain section, follow me on Twitter @minaddotcom and we can figure it out together. Please also check out the Johannesburg chapter of Hacks/Hackers @HacksHackersJHB for more information and resources on data journalism.

Resources

I’ve included below all spreadsheets, tools, and links, so you can pick up this guide any time and see how I arrived at the final infographic.

Police raid on #Alexandra Wednesday morning uncovers little

inside hostel room
inside hostel room

Members of the South African police, along with units of Tactical Response Team and Bomb Disposal, entered the Alexandra Men’s Hostel around midnight Wednesday morning.

SANDF soldiers and armoured cars were stationed close to the hostel, while the police walked through and searched rooms. SAPS spokesperson Colonel Noxolo Kweza explained that the purpose of the raid was to uncover illegal firearms.

police before search

Some residents were asked to vacate the rooms. Although visibly perplexed by the raid, there were no instances of backlash.

20150422_235609(0)

inside hostel room

One officer was overheard saying, “the criminals are here”, but only two crates of beer were brought out by the end of the raid. Later reports said that one arrest was made.

art4art5

#Jeppestown raid targeted ‘criminal elements’ of xenophobic attacks

The raid on Jeppestown Men’s Hostel Tuesday night was about the ‘criminal elements’ from the xenophobic attacks in the area. 11 suspects were arrested.

SAPS provinicial spokesperson Lt Kay Makhubela explained that the police seized stolen goods, ‘believed to may have’ come from lootings.

Reports have also mentioned large amounts of dagga received.

SANDF spokesperson Xolani Mabanga wouldn’t comment on who carried out or led the raid, saying only that ‘the military is in support of the SAPS’.

Makhubela clarified that the police moved in, while the military secured the perimeter: ‘Military backs up while police do their job.’

Further questioning to Lt Makhubela didn’t establish direct links betwern the raid and the overall violence against non-South Africans. When asked if raid was legal and the police had a court order: “… The police have the right to enter premises, when they see an immediate threat, for a raid without a search warrant. ”

There were related reports Tuesday that journalists were forced by police to delete photos taken around the hostel. Makhubela declined to confirm whether orders were given to officers to do so. He added that it’s not ‘illegal’ for journos and photographers to take photos as part of their jobs. He invited affected members of the press to open a case against the offending officer.

Some government uptake from TomTom data and insights

The TomTom Traffic Index released earlier this month reveals insight about congestion and traffic patterns in South Africa.

Cape Town, in 55th position on the global index, remains the most congested city in the country, with morning commutes adding up to 72% to commuting time. Johannesburg listed at 77 fares only slightly better, with morning travel adding up to 59% to commuting time.

‘The data suggest that coastal cities are more congested,’ explained Carey Dodd, Marketing Manager for TomTom Consumer in South Africa and Sub Saharan Africa, at a recent roundtable discussion of the index.

tt_global_2

Pretoria, East London, Durban, and Bloemfontein don’t appear on the rankings because their inner central business districts (CBD) don’t meet the criterion of having a population larger than 800,000.

tt_evening_1

Jaap Schaapherder, TomTom Africa Key Account Manager, mentioned that the cities of Johannesburg, Durban, Cape Town and Tshwane are redesigning roads based on the congestion data from TomTom. The extent of this use will be the subject of further stories.

Etienne Louw, TomTom Africa General Manager, stated that there are 700,000km of roads in South Africa and 9 million overall in Africa. The company boasts that the quality of their maps is ‘better than competitors’ and is able to send out map updates to 400 million GPS units within 2 minutes through its network.

Louw did state that SANRAL is using TomTom data for road design and to alleviate congestion, but that the company is not consulted on policy at the roads agency.

When asked if TomTom’s traffic data has been used by RTMC to understand trends in road accidents, Louw would not comment on why RTMC hasn’t used the data. He cited that there was a ‘long selling cycle’.

Deep in South Africa has contacted the RTMC for confirmation and comment.

[interactive map] Top hijacking and smash ‘n’ grab hotspots in Gauteng

infographic on top hotspots

Deep in South Africa has produced an interactive map below of the top hijacking and smash ‘n’ grab hotspots in Gauteng, based on data from the Gauteng Department of Community Safety and eBlockwatch.

The data from the Department of Community Safety comes from a question-and-answer session with Gauteng Community Safety MEC Sizakele Nkosi-Malobane. Nkosi-Malobane mentioned problems with the data, citing “system errors”.



The map will be updated with more data points.

[webdoc] Protest Chants of the EFF

in the thick of a EFF protest
in the thick of a EFF protest

Deep in South Africa is experimenting with new ways of telling a story and leveraging powerful new web technologies that facilitate that.

Protest Chants of the EFF is a short webdoc (web documentary), powered by Interlude’s Treehouse, on a protest held by the EFF last year May during the general elections. It’s  designed for both desktop/laptop and mobile.

This is a first foray into online documentary making with this app, so please let us know in the comments or contact us about any technical problems faced.

Following the Jeppestown evictions

301 Marshall Street Jeppestown

One of the buildings at the center of last week’s Jeppestown protest has been identified as 301 Marshall Street, owned by Rilagraph Pty Ltd.

Deep in South Africa has seen and confirmed an eviction notice served to the residents. Rilagraph’s attorney Greg Vermaak of Vermaak & Partners confirmed that the eviction notice was served July 2014 and that the City of Johannesburg was notified ‘as per their formal process

The residents applied earlier this month on 5 March to have the eviction order rescinded.

The updated map from the full recap of the protests is below:

[Updated] Understanding the #JeppeProtest and Jeppestown evictions

Updated 11:50am 24 March 2015:

This past Wednesday, an unauthorized march formed close to Jeppe Men’s Hostel in Jeppestown, downtown Johannesburg, after eviction orders were issued to residents. A local youth empowerment organization Umuzi Photo Club reported that residents in the area felt aggrieved and ignored by the City of Johannesburg and the local ANC ward councillor, after it was revealed that property developers acquired old buildings without their consultation.

Residents feel economic development moving into nearby Maboneng Precinct and other urban regeneration projects, and little happening in their communities.

The following charts can shed some light on Jeppestown as a whole:


Maboneng, owned by Propertuity, quickly became the object of attack, although it was not clear at that point whether they are the developers behind the recent acquisitions.

Police were alerted to the march and violence gave way when tensions flared:

From media reports, it is still not clear which buildings have been affected by the acquisitions. The update from SABC reporter Manqoba Mchunu (cited above, Situation remains tense in Jeppestown) on Wednesday made the first explicit mention of the property developer EGC Properties, a fact that wasn’t picked up in articles by Daily Maverick, EWN, and CityPress.

Residents who live in the area mentioned that nine to 10 buildings were served notices, while City of Johannesburg confirmed that only three to their knowledge have been affected. This is from today’s The Khonza Show on CliffCentral, where it was also stated that the evictions are set to go ahead on 24 March.

A video published on Thursday reported that despite the 24 March deadline, evictions had already started:

Deep in South Africa did contact Propertuity for clarification. The company refused to comment on the protests and the tensions with Jeppestown residents, but they confirmed the addresses of their upcoming developments. In light of another developer being named by reports, it is unclear why they have appeared to be defensive and refrain from commenting.

Further to EGC Properties, it has been revealed that another developer, Dryden Projects Construction, have been linked to EGC and the forced evictions. Deep in South Africa has confirmed that EGC Properties is a subsidiary of Dryden Projects.

Below is a map of all developments owned or carried out by Propertuity and Dryden.

Errata: All instances of ECG Properties was changed to EGC Properties.

Ahead of ‘March Against Crime’ on Friday, local councilor explains why the march

Updated Thursday March 19

1:43pm: JMPD Spokesperson Wayne Minnaar denied there was any concern or ‘negativity’ from JMPD about the protest. All necessary permits and applications have been followed correctly. When asked about number of officers present tomorrow, he could not confirm the number of assigned officers due to the shift system employed.

A ‘March Against Crime’ will happen this coming Friday 20 March from 10am to 1pm, starting from Roodepoort City Hall and ending at SAPS Roodepoort, where a memorandum will be handed over.

route for March Against Crime 20 March
route for March Against Crime 20 March

Deep in South Africa asked the march organiser and Ward 71 Councillor Gert Niemand to explain more about the march. It hasn’t had much traction or exposure on social media.

What turnout are you expecting for this march?
Well, we are planning for 500 and it [looks like] that we will come close to that.

Is this the first ever march organized in your ward?
Yes, the march organised for the Roodepoort Constituency along with the Northwest Constituency which covers the Honeydew Cluster police area.

What kind of security arrangements are in place for the day for marchers to be at ease?
Both SAPS and JMPD will be in attendance. From the organisers side, we will have sufficient marshalls as well as medical personnel available.

Any personal fears ahead of this march?
As the organiser, there is a 101 things that CAN go wrong, but I am confident that the march will be a success from an organising point of view as well as having a positive outcome and getting the message across that the community can and will not accept the high levels of crime in their area.

source: LinkedIn
DA Ward 71 Councillor

How difficult or straightforward was it obtaining the necessary permit from the municipality and police?
The application proses for a public march is relatively straightforward, JMPD has got one office that deals with all these applications.  The applicant goes in, do the application are then given a date to appear before the JOC panel and once appeared the march or event is approved or disapproved. The problem comes in that when you hand memoranda over to someone, the recipient of such a memorandum must give you a letter indicating that they will receive the memorandum.  SAPS had no problem providing me with such a letter, but JMPD refused to receive one and referred me to the Speakers office.  We will not be handing them a memorandum on the day but will hand the memorandum in to the Office of the Speaker which will then make it a formal document to Council that needs to be dealt with.

In a telephonic conversation with the official spokesperson for SAPS Roodepoort Warrant Officer Nonhlanhla Khumalo, she confirmed that there will be a march on Friday and that the appropriate permit had been obtained from JMPD, but that there had been no official communication between the Councillor’s office and SAPS Roodepoort. Officer Khumalo kept mentioning that she ‘had read about it in the local newspaper.’

Officer Khumalo added that the councillor has stipulated that the memorandum will be handed over to the Honeydew Clustre Commander, rather than the SAPS Roodepoort commander. The reason for this remains unclear.

Honeydew Clustre is comprised of Douglasdale, Florida, Honeydew, Randburg, Roodepoort,
Cosmo City, and also includes informal settlements – Zandspruit, Itsoseng, Diepsloot, Kya Sands, Pipeline, Durban Deep and Matholesville.

Would you say SAPS and Metro were helpful in the process?
Yes, as far as the application process is concerned.

How did this march come out? Was it a community call? Shed some light here.
The idea behind the march came about as all the wards in the Honeydew Cluster, ward councillors have been inundated at public meetings for some time now by Community members and block watches that the overall crime situation is getting out of hand. In terms of JMPD, we as ward councillors are dealing with complaints on a daily basis of by-law infringements such as illegal dumping, illegal taxi ranks, illegal signage, etc. That needs the attention of JMPD.

The headings of the flyer are direct and point to particular problems. Are you aware of specific statistics that support your reasons for the march?
Yes, the 2014 crime stats that were released by the South African Police Services. The Honeydew Cluster and in particular the Honeydew and Roodepoort Police Stations are in the Top 10 worst Crime Statistics in Gauteng.

Has there been any hostility expressed against the march so far?
None so ever from the Community at large, but as I’ve mentioned JMPD is not too happy.

What do you want to see come out of this march, both from government and community?
On the community side much more awareness and involvement with their local block watch structures and crime forums.  From the government side, more pro-active policing, revised sector policing module, more staff and more resources to be made available against the fight.  There also needs to be an attitude change from both organisations to the way they conduct themselves in relation to their job.

Major question to be answered on Friday… Why a 3 hour march for a 13 minute walk?